SPECIFICATIONS FOR STAINLESS STEEL BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS, AND CAST OR FORGED POLE LINE HARDWARE
1.1 This specification covers the requirements for stainless steel bolts, nuts, washers, and cast or forged pole line hardware to be used on Transmission and Distribution Systems. The products and alloys specified are intended for service applications requiring general corrosion resistance in areas such as those with salt and industrial contamination.
1.2 Supplementary requirements of an optional nature will be provided at the time of inquiry and order and shall be applicable when agreed upon by the manufacturer and client.
1.3 All stainless steel bolts, nuts, washers, and case or forged pole line hardware furnished under this specification, shall comply with all provisions of this specification and the latest revision of the references ANSI/ASME specifications for dimensions, tolerances, and strengths and referenced ASTM standards for the materials and products used in their manufacture.
1.4 Any deviation from this specification must be requested in writing by the client, approved in writing by a manufacturer engineering representative and by the Standards/Engineering Department of the client before processing of an order will be permitted.
1.5 In the case of conflicting requirements, the order of precedence shall be the purchase order, this specification, and the ANSI/ASME and ASTM standards.
2.1 Machine Bolts
The chemical composition and physical properties of machine bolts shall conform to ASTM Specification A1 93 or P593 for Group 2, Grade 316 stainless steel bolts. All items shall be marked with the alloy number 316.
2.2 Nuts and Washers
The chemical composition and physical properties of nuts shall conform to ASTM Specification A194 or F594 for Group 2, Grade 316 stainless steel nuts. All nuts furnished with bolts shall have a minimum proof stress equal to or greater than the minimum full-size tensile strength of the bolts. Sheared nuts may be substituted to obtain the required strengths. All items shall be marked with the alloy number 316 or approved alternate.
3.0 Dimensions, Tolerances, and Strengths:
3.1 Bolts shall conform to ANSI/ASME Specification B.18.2.1 for Square and Hex Bolt and Screws, Inch Series. Bolt sizes (diameter and length) and types (square, hex, heavy hex, heavy hex structural, heavy hex screws, square lag screws and hex lag screws) to be specified at time of purchase.
3.2 Nuts shall conform to ANSI/ASME Specification B.18.2.2 for Square and Hex Nuts. Nut sizes (diameter and thickness) and types (square hex, heavy square, hex flat, heavy hex, and heavy hex flat) to be specified at time of purchase.
3.3 Bolt threads on all items, except lag screws, shall conform to ANSI/ASME Specification B.1.1. for coarse threads, class 2B (internal) tolerance.
3.4 Bolt points shall be flat and chamfered unless otherwise specified.
3.5 Flat washers shall conform to ANSI/ASME Specification B.18.22.1. for Plain Washers. Washer sizes (diamaters and thicknesses) to be specified at time of purchase.
3.6 Beveled washers shall conform to ANSI/ASME Specification B.18.23.2. for Plain (regular) Helical Spring Lock Washers. Washer sizes (diameters and thicknesses) to be specified at time of purchase.
3.7 Lock washers shall conform to ANSI/ASME Specification B.18.21.1. for Plain (regular) Helical Spring Lock Washers. Washer sizes (diameters and thicknesses) to be specified at time of purchase.
3.8 Cast or forged pole line hardware shall conform to the applicable ANSI/ASME and ASTM specifications required at the time of purchase.
4.0 Design, Shape, Size, Length and Strengths:
4.1 Materials furnished shall conform to the appropriate ANSI Specification referenced herein for strength and the design, size and length specified at the time of purchase.
4.2 MACHINE BOLTS shall comply with ANSI Specifications C135.1.
4.3 CAP SCREWS shall comply with Section 2 above except that Regular square nuts shall be assembled on each bolt. The bolt shall be fully threaded.
4.4 DOUBLE ARMING BOLTS shall comply with the ANSI Specification C135.1.1 Regular square nuts shall be assembled on each bolt. The bolt shall be fully threaded.
4.5 LAG SCREWS shall be in accordance with ANSI Specification C135.3.
4.6 EYE BOLTS, straight and angled, shall be in accordance with ANSI Specification C135.4.
4.7 ANCHOR RODS shall be in accordance with ANSI Specification C135.2. Nut shall not be capable of being turned beyond the threaded portion of the rod.
4.8 EYENUTS and EYELETS shall be in accordance with the ANSI Specification C135.5.
4.9 ANCHOR ROD NUTS shall be in accordance with ANSI Specification C135.2
4.10 ANCHOR BOLTS shall comply with ANSI Specification C135.1.
4.11 INSULATOR PINS shall comply with ANSI Specification C135.17.
4.12 CAST OR FORGED POLE LINE HARDWARE shall conform to the applicable ANSI/ASME and ASTM specifications required at the time of purchase.
5.0 Corrosion Resistance:
5.1 Items manufactured with materials from Alloy Groups 1, 2, and 3 (austenitic alloys) shall be free of carbide precipitation as specified in ASTM A262, Practice A, Oxalic Acid Etch Test for Classification of Etch Structures of Stainless Steel.
5.2 If the items pass the requirements of Practice A, they shall be considered acceptable. If they fail, they shall be tested in accordance with ASTM A262, Practice C, Nitric Acid Test and shall show a corrosion rate not exceeding 0.002 inch per month.
6.0 Workmanship and Finish:
All items purchased under this specification shall be free of injurious burrs, seams, laps, irregular surfaces, and other defects affecting serviceability.
6.2 Surface Finish
All items shall have a surface finish produced in accordance with ASTM A380 for Cleaning and Descaling Stainless Steel Parts, Equipment, and Systems or Federal Specification QQP35C for Surface Finishes.
6.3 Protective Finishes
All items shall be furnished without an additive chemical or metallic finish unless otherwise specified.
7.0 Certification and Test Reports:
7.1 Certificate of Compliance
The manufacturer shall furnish certification that the product was manufactured and tested in accordance with this specification and conforms to all specified requirements.
7.2 Test Report
When specified on the order, the manufacturer shall furnish a test report showing the results of the last completed set of mechanical tests for each stock size in the shipment.
7.3 All certifications shall indicate the purchase order number and the applicable requirements.
8.0 Packaging and Shipping
8.1 Each shipping unit shall bear a tag or be plainly marked with the following: ASTM designation number, alloy number, size or description, name and brand or trademark or the manufacturer, number of pieces, the purchase order number, and the Client’s Stock Number.
9.0 Manufacturer’s and Material Identification
9.1 All items shall be marked with a symbol identifying the manufacturer and the alloy used in manufacturing. The marking may be raised or depressed unless otherwise specified at the time of purchase.
ASTM-A368 Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Wire Strand
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 368; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (_) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1.1 This specification covers stainless steel wire strand composed of a multiplicity of round wires and suitable for use as guy wires, overhead ground wires and similar purposes.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A 555/A 555M Specification for General Requirements for Stainless Steel Wire and Wire Rods2
A 751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products2
3. Ordering Information
3.1 It is the responsibility of the purchaser to specify all requirements that are necessary for material ordered under this specification. Such requirements may include, but are not limited to, the following:
3.1.1 Quantity (length of strand or weight of quantity ordered, or both, (see 13.1 and Table 1),
3.1.2 Name of material (stainless steel),
3.1.3 Form (wire strand in coils or on reels),
3.1.4 Applicable dimensions (for nominal strand diameter, see Table 1),
3.1.5 Minimum of wires per strand (Table 1),
3.1.6 Minimum breaking strength (medium or high strength),
3.1.7 Type designation (see Section 7),
3.1.8 ASTM desgination, and date or issue , and
3.1.9 Special requirements, if any.
Note–A typical ordering description is as follows: 1000 ft. stainless steel 7-wire strand, 7/16-in. diameter, medium strength, on reel, Type 302, ASTM A 368 dated _______________.
4. General Requirements for Delivery
4.1 In addition to the requirements of this specification, all requirements of the current edition of Specifications A 555/A 555M shall apply. Failure to comply with the general requirements of Specification A 555/A 555M constitutes nonconformance with this specification.
5.1 Three-wire strand shall have a left lay with a uniform pitch of not less than 10 nor more than 16 times the nominal diameter of the strand. Seven-wire strand and the outer layer of 19-wire strand, shall have a left lay with a uniform pitch of not less than 12 nor more than 16 times the nominal diameter of the strand. A left lay is defined as a counter-clockwise twist away from the observer. All wires shall be stranded with uniform tension. Stranding shall be sufficiently close to ensure no appreciable reduction in diameter when stressed to 10% of the specified strength.
6.1 There shall be no strand joints or strand splices in any length of the completed strand.
6.2 In 3-wire strand, there shall be no joints in the individual wires.
6.3 In 7-wire strand, joints in individual wires shall be acceptable provided there is not more than one joint in any 150-ft (46-m) section of the completed strand and the location of each wire joint is marked on the strand with paint or some other distinguishing mark.
6.4 In 19-wire strand, joints in the individual wires of the outer layer of 12 wires shall be acceptable provided there is not more than one joint in any 150-ft (46-m) section and the location of each wire joint is marked on the strand with paint or some other distinguishing mark. Joints in the 7-wire inner layer of 19-wire strand shall be acceptable provided there is not more than one joint in any 150-ft section.
6.5 Joints in the individual wires shall be flash or upset butt-welded. Care shall be taken to prevent injury to the wire during welding.
7 Chemical Composition
7.1 The steel shall be Type 302, 304, 305, 316, 316Cb, or 316Ti and shall conform to the requirements as to chemical composition specified in Table 2.
7.2 Methods and practices relating to chemical analysis required by this specification shall be in accordance with Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology A571.
8. Mechanical Requirements
8.1 The tensile strength requirements, based upon the nominal strand diameter and the number of wires in each strand, shall conform to the requirements specified in Table 1. All tension tests shall be made upon lengths of strand that do not contain welds in the individual wires.
8.2 The individual wires of the completed strand shall not fracture when wrapped in a close helix of at least two turns upon itself as a mandrel at a rate not exceeding 15 turns/min.
Table 1 Mechanical Requirements
Table 2 Chemical Requirements
9. Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variations
9.1 The nominal diameter of the finished strand and of the individual wires, the number of wires per strand, and the approximate weight per 1000 ft (or per 304.80 m) of strand are shown in Table 1.
9.2 The diameter of the individual wires forming the strand shall not vary from the nominal wire diameters by more than +/-0.001 in. (+\-0.025 mm).
10. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
10.1 The finished strand shall be tight, smooth, and free of imperfections not consistent with good commercial practice.
10.2 The diameter of the finished strand shall be uniform, except for a minor increase in diameter due to a wire joint.
11.1 Sampling for determination of compliance to this specification shall be performed on each lot of completed strand. A lot shall consist of all strand of one size (nominal strand diameter, nominal wire diameter, and number of wires per strand) and grade in each shipment.
12. Number of Tests and Retests
12.1 The number of samples tested shall be as follows:
When a lot consists of only one reel, tests must be of necessity be limited to two in number (one from each end).
12.1.1 Each strand sample shall be subjected to the tension test as specified in 8.1.
12.1.2 In aedition to the strand testing specified in 12.1.1, the individual wires shall be subjected to the wrapping test specified in 8.2. The number of individual wires to be tested from each strand shall be as follows:
12.2 In case of reasonable doubt in the first tests as to the failure of the wire or strand to meet any requirements of this specification, two additional tests shall be made on samples or wire or strand from the same coil (or reel). If failure occurs in either of these tests, the lot shall be rejected. However, the producer may, at his option, requalify individual coils (or reels) by performing the required tests on an individual coil (or reel) basis.
13. Packaging and Marking
13.1 Wire strand shall be furnished in standard lengths (see 13.1.1) and in compact coils or on reels (see 13.1.2) as specified by the purchaser; otherwise lengths shall be as agreed upon at the time of purchase.
13.1.1 Standard lengths of strand are as follows: 100 ft (30.48 m), 250 ft. (72.2 m), 500 ft (152.40 m), 1000 ft (304.80 m), 2500 ft (762.00 m), and 5000 ft (1524.00 m).
13.1.2 Standard practice is to furnish all strand of 7/16 in. (11.11 mm) and over in diameter on reels in lengths of 1000 ft (304.80 m) and over. Strand lengths of less than 1000 ft are regularly furnished in coils.
13.2 The strand shall be protected against damage in ordinary handling and shipping as agreed upon at the time of purchase. Each coil (or reel) shall have a strong weatherproof tag securely fastened to it showing the minimum breaking strength, the nominal diameter of the strand, the length of the strand, the steel type designation, ASTM designation A368 dated ______________ and the name or mark of the manufacturer.
14.1 stainless steel; wire strand
1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys, and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.17 on Flat Stainless Steel Products. Current edition approved Feb. 15, 1995. Published April 1995. Originally published as A 368 – 53 T. Last previous edition A 368-95.
2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03.
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